Title: One Man's Deliberation, One State's Salvation
Author: Yvonne Martin
Big Ideas: Role of state and federal politics in the statehood of West Virginia; President Lincoln's role in establishing West Virginia as a state.
Essential Question: Who were the state leaders during the 1860s and what were their viewpoints on statehood? What issues did Lincoln consider in granting West Virginia's statehood?
West Virginia Social Studies
SS.5.WV.1 reconstruct the economic, social and political history of West Virginia through the use of primary source documents
SS.5.WV.4 sequence the events that led to the formation of the state of West Virginia
SS.5.WV.5 identify and explain the significance of historical experiences and of geographical, social and economic factors that have helped shape both West Virginia's and America's society.
SS.5.WV.6 analyze the moral, ethical, and legal tensions that led to the creation of the new state of West Virginia and how those tensions were resolved
English Language Arts
ELA.5.R.C1.4 quote accurately from an informational text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
ELA.5.R.C1.5 determine two or more main ideas of an informational text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.
ELA.5.R.C1.6 using an informational text, explain the relationship or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.
ELA.5.R.C3.1 analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone or beauty of a literary text (e.g. graphic novel, multimedia presentation in fiction, folktale, myth, poem).
ELA.5.R.C3.3 draw on information from multiple print or digital informational sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently.
ELA.5.W.C11.1 conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of topic.
ELA.5.SL.C13.2 summarize a written text, read aloud, or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
SS.5.E.6 compare the industrial North and the agricultural South prior to the Civil War, the geographic characteristics and boundaries of each region and the basic way of life in each region.
SS.5.G.1 explain how aspects of the terrain (e.g., the principle mountain ranges, rivers, vegetation and climate of the region, etc.) affected westward travel and expansion.
SS.5.H.CL.1 research the roles and accomplishments of the leaders of the reform movements before and during the Civil War (e.g., abolition movement, Underground Railroad and other social reforms, etc.).
Students must understand sectionalism between the eastern and western parts of Virginia. In particular, sectionalism as it related to land use, sectionalism in trade/transportation, and sectionalism concerning the definition of democracy. Students will need experience with persuasive writing techniques as that style of writing is used in the post-test of day seven. This style could be part of the RLA during the unit if it has not already been taught.
This plan is developed to allow cross-curricular coverage of a topic. Once an idea or question is introduced in Social Studies, it is further investigate during RLA classes. A creative arts lesson is included as well. Differentiation is accommodated through the use of partner and small group work with teacher monitoring. The lessons are designed to be accomplished within a 30 - 40 minute time block unless otherwise noted.
During RLA class students combine notes from all sources on the statehood advocate and "fine tune" research into a persuasive essay about the pros/cons of statehood. Students select someone to act as that advocate and do a dramatic reading of this essay during the class. This may take two class periods.
During social studies access onto a SMART Board President Lincoln's Statehood Proclamation of April 20th, 1863. Conduct a "cloze reading" activity with the class: discuss vocabulary, phrasing, meaning within historical time period. Have the students highlight, rephrase, etc. on the board as the discussion develops. The teacher closes by leading a review of Lincoln's perspective in depth.
If you are conducting the debate on Day six, select students who want to represent the Virginia's Loyalists' point of view to counter the advocates for statehood.
During RLA, let the students playing the roles of statehood advocates and Virginia Loyalists practice his/her presentation with partners. Have the presenters work on vocal quality, gesturing, and "making the point"
During social studies, conduct a debate, giving time for both sides to present. After the debate, conduct a mock election for the citizens (students) to vote for or against statehood. After results are announces, have the students discuss why the results turned out as they did.
Administer the Venn diagram post-test. Students must supply two additional details in each section of the Venn when compared to his/her pre-test Venn for a satisfactory performance. In addition, allow the students time to defend his/her position on West Virginia statehood using persuasive writing. He/She must justify his/her position with three details learned during this unit.
Notes to the Instructor
Notebook paper and construction paper/stapler for Summary Log
Venn Diagram labeled with Pro Statehood on one circle, Con Statehood on a second Circle, and Lincoln's Deliberation on shared, lap-over space, one copy of Pre test and one copy for Post test per student
Materials for students to illustrate the Summary Log cover if they choose to do so
SMART Board or access to computer
Wheeling Intelligencer Newspaper Office
By the time of the Civil War, many people in the western part of Virginia believed that they had been ignored by the state government for far too long. Virginia's secession from the Union offered the western region a chance to break away and form a new state. A key leader of the statehood movement was Archibald Campbell, editor of the Wheeling Intelligencer
Campbell and other statehood leaders pushed first to form a Virginia government loyal to the Union, then to create the state of West Virginia. Campbell lobbied Congress and President Lincoln to admit West Virginia. Northern control of the region held down opposition and endured West Virginia Statehood.
On June 20, 1863, West Virginia entered the Union as the 35th state.
Source: West Virginia State Museum Teachers Planner, "CIvil War and Statehood"
Links & Other Resources